Significant importance of autoimmune changes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia (SCZ) is not established. Here, we present the first evidence that autoantibodies of 100% SCZ patients possess RNase activity: сCMP > poly(C) > poly(A) > yeast RNA. In addition, we have got an unexpected result: there was revealed site-specific hydrolysis of four known SCZ specific microRNAs (miR-137, miR-9-5p, miR-219-2-3p, and miR-219a-5p) playing an important role in the regulation of several genes functioning. Three major of cleavage sites are located in the microRNA loops or duplex parts directly articulated with the loops. RNase abzymes can contribute to decreasing of microRNAs effects on the functioning of numerous genes and the products of their transcription. Therefore, abzymes with RNase activity may be to some extent important for the development of schizophrenia.