A high-technology sector is developing rapidly in many countries, which is having great influence on key economic performance indicators and national competitiveness levels. Special contribution to economic growth is made by fast-growing companies which could become global leaders. The case of Russian high-tech business is discussed in this chapter. Key characteristics of companies operating in this sector are identified and attention is paid primarily to high-tech leaders. A special scheme for leadership analysis, which is based on the top groups’ comparison, is suggested and applied. Factors influencing companies’ performance indicators are analyzed with the help of regression models. Data provided by Russia’s Fast Growing High-Tech Companies’ National Rating (“TekhUspekh”) during 2012–2016 and by SPARK project were used. The results revealed that the Russian high-tech sector is characterized by a high level of uncertainty. A limited number of regions and sectors which form the basis for high-tech businesses were defined. The relationship between innovation activity’s indicators and export potential was determined.