The geodynamic development of the north–western (Arctic) margin of the Siberian craton is comprehensively analyzed for the first time based on our database as well as on the analysis of published material, from Precambrian-Paleozoic and Mesozoic folded structures to the formation of the Mesozoic–Cenozoic Yenisei-Khatanga sedimentary basin. We identify the main stages of the region’s tectonic evolution related to collision and accretion processes, mainly subduction and rifting. It is demonstrated that the prototype of the Yenisei-Khatanga basin was a wide late Paleozoic foreland basin that extended from Southern Taimyr to the Tunguska syneclise and deepened towards Taimyr. The formation of the Yenisei-Khatanga basin, as well as of the West-Siberian basin, was due to continental rifting in the Permian–Triassic. The study describes the main oil and gas generating deposits of the basin, which are mainly Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous mudstones. It is shown that the Lower Cretaceous deposits contain 90% of known hydrocarbon reserves. These are mostly stacked reservoirs with gas, gas condensate and condensate with rims. The study also presents data on oil and gas reservoirs, plays and seals in the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous complexes.