A suite of seventeen unique, large, and fresh eclogite xenoliths from the Udachnaya pipe have been studied for their whole-rock and mineral major- and trace-element compositions. Based on their major-element compositions, the Udachnaya eclogites can be subdivided in two groups: high magnesian (Mg# 68.8–81.9) and low magnesian (Mg# 56.8–59). The two eclogite groups are clearly different in the style of correlation between major elements. Positive correlations of FeO and CaO with MgO are observed in the low-magnesian group, whereas these correlations are negative in the high-magnesian group. In terms of trace element composition, the Udachnaya eclogites are enriched over Primitive Mantle, but comparable to mid-ocean-ridge basalt composition, except for significant enrichment in large-ion lithophile elements (LILE; Rb, Ba, K, Sr). Most of the samples show a positive Eu anomaly, irrespective of group. Reconstructed whole-rock composition from clinopyroxene and garnet modal abundances contains much less incompatible elements (LILE, light rare earth elements, high field strength elements) than measured composition. Approximately 60 to 100% of the middle rare earth elements, Zr, and Hf, and nearly 100% of the heavy rare earth elements, Co, V, and Sc of the whole-rock budget are concentrated in Gar and Cpx. Variations in major element compositions cover a full section of the modern and Archaean oceanic crust, from troctolite, through gabbroic rocks, to basalts. The low-Mg# eclogites could have formed from upper oceanic crust protoliths, being a mixture of basalts and gabbro, whereas the high-Mg# eclogites are originated from gabbro-troctolite section of the lower oceanic crust. Concordant variations of Eu anomaly with the Lu/Sr ratio and the V and Ni contents in the eclogite compositions are in agreement with the fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and olivine in their low-pressure precursor rocks. Negative correlations of SiO2 and MgO, and a low Nd/YbNMORB ratio, in the low-Mg# eclogites are in agreement with partial melt loss, but the presence of accessory quartz limits the degree of melting to 13%. Major and trace element compositions suggest that the high-Mg# eclogites, and, consequently, the lower oceanic crust, could not have experienced significant melt loss, and subduction in the Archaean may have been essentially dry, compared to the present day.