Background: The studies on CpG islands (CGI) and Alu elements functions, evolution, and distribution in the genome started since the discovery in nineteen eighties (1981, 1986, correspondingly). Their highly skewed genome wide distribution implies the non-random retrotransposition pattern. Besides CGIs in gene promoters, CGIs clusters were observed in the homeobox gene regions and in the macrosatellites, but the whole picture of their distribution specifics was not grasped. Attempts to identify any causative features upon their (genome wide) distribution, such as the DNA context mediated preferred insertion sites of Alu repeats, have been made to ascribe their clusters location. Methods: Recent emergence of high resolution 3D map of human genome allowed segregating the genome into the large scale chromatin domains of naturally observable nuclear subcompartments, or Topologically Associated Domains (TADs), designated by spatial chromatin distribution. We utilized the chromatin map to elucidate relations between large scale chromatin state and CpG rich elements landscape. In the course of analysis it was confirmed that genes, Alu and CGI clusters maintain obvious, albeit different in strength, preference for open chromatin. For the first time it was clearly shown that the clusters density of the Alu and CGIs monotonically depend on the chromatin accessibility rate. In particular, the highest density of these elements is found in A1 euchromatin regions characterized by a high density of small length genes replicating in the early S-phase. It implies that these elements mediate (CGIs) or are a side element (Alus) of chromatin accessibility. Results: We elucidated that both methylated and non-methylated CGIs display the affinity to chromatin accessibility. As a part of comparative genomics section, we elucidated that the dog’s genome non-canonical structure, outstanding in mammals for its high CGIs abundance compared to gene number, is explained by the presence of dense tandem CGI extended hotspots (500 kb on average) in subtelomeric and pericentromeric regions with highly skewed CG content, and not by CGIs global distribution pattern shift. Conclusions: The study underlines the close association of CG-rich elements distribution with the newly introduced large scale chromatin state map, proposing a refined standpoint on interrelation of aforementioned genome elements and the chromatin state. To our expertise, the TAD-associated partition model employed in the study is likely the most substantial one regarding CpG rich clusters distribution among the whole genome chromatin/isochores maps available.
|Журнал||BMC Evolutionary Biology|
|Номер выпуска||Suppl 1|
|Состояние||Опубликовано - 7 февр. 2017|