Heredity is a well-known risk factor for varicose veins, but genetic basis of this condition remains poorly studied. Our aim was to conduct a large-scale genetic association study for primary varicose veins (PVVs) in the population of ethnic Russians. An initial scan using Illumina HumanExome-12 v1.0 BeadChip was performed for 273 patients with PVVs and 250 controls without a history of chronic venous disease and other venous disorders. After quality control and removal of monomorphic markers, 25,424 common and 48,232 rare variants were included in the analysis. 42 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in the independent replication cohort of 447 PVVs patients and 443 controls. Association of common variants with PVVs was investigated by logistic regression, and the impact of rare variants was analyzed using sequence kernel association test. No effect of low frequency alleles has been revealed in our study. Common variant analysis identified a promising signal at chromosome 6 within classical major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III subregion. The most strongly associated SNP in a combined analysis that reached a suggestive significance level of 3.2e−05 was polymorphism rs4151657 in the complement factor B gene. Testing for potential pleiotropy with other traits indicated that the same causal variant in this region increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis and has a negative impact on human height. Our results provide suggestive evidence for the involvement of the MHC class III genes in the pathogenesis of PVVs. Further independent studies are needed to confirm our pilot findings.