Endothelization of the luminal surface of vascular grafts is required for their long-term functioning. Here, we have cultivated human endothelial cells (HUVEC) on different 3D matrices to assess cell proliferation, gene expression and select the best substrate for endothelization. 3D matrices were produced by electrospinning from solutions of poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and blends of PCL with gelatin (Gl) in hexafluoroisopropanol. Structure and surface properties of 3D matrices were characterized by SEM, AFM, and sessile drop analysis. Cell adhesion, viability, and proliferation were studied by SEM, Alamar Blue staining, and 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) assay. Gene expression profiling was done on an Illumina HiSeq 2500 platform. Obtained data indicated that 3D matrices produced from PCL with Gl and treated with glutaraldehyde provide the most suitable support for HUVEC adhesion and proliferation. Transcriptome sequencing has demonstrated a minimal difference of gene expression profile in HUVEC cultivated on the surface of these matrices as compared to tissue culture plastic, thus confirming these matrices as the best support for endothelization.