We investigated the effect of mixtures of commercial nonionic surfactants Sintanol ALM-7 (A7), Sintanol ALM-10 (A10), Surfynol 465 (S6), Surfynol 485 (S8), and well-known kinetic hydrate inhibitor Luvicap 55W (sample P) on nucleation and growth of sII gas hydrate. The ramp method (cooling at a constant rate of 1 °C × h−1) was employed to determine hydrate onset temperature and subcooling of individual and mixed samples. The dosage of reagents varied within 0.25–1.0 mass% range. A7 and A10 were tested at concentrations of 1.6∙10−4–2.5∙10−3 mass% (about or lower than CMC) as well. All surfactants were found to be weak antinucleators of gas hydrates. The inhibition performance of the surfactants was significantly lower in comparison with Luvicap 55W. We observed that ethoxylated fatty alcohols (A7 and A10) at low concentrations demonstrated a hydrate-inhibiting action at nucleation and growth stages. The Luvicap 55W – surfactant mixtures were tested as KHIs with a total dosage of 0.5 mass%, and in the ratio of 1:1, 1:2, and 1:5. Several mixed samples (1:1 P + A10), (1:2 P + A10), (1:2 P + S6) have demonstrated the same or higher efficacy in inhibition of hydrate nucleation than pure KHI. The results obtained indicate the presence of a synergistic effect of kinetic inhibition of gas hydrate with mixtures of the polymer and ethoxylated nonionic surfactants. Among the mixtures, the best results were obtained for the sample (1:2 P + S6). Surfynol 465 is characterized by high solubility in water, low foaming (compared to other surfactants), and lower cost than vinyl lactam-based KHI. Thus, the Surfynol 465 is a promising synergist for the vinyl lactam polymeric KHI and allows reducing the dosage of the expensive polymer.
Предметные области OECD FOS+WOS
- 2.07 ЭНЕРГЕТИКА И РАЦИОНАЛЬНОЕ ПРИРОДОПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ