Growing evidence suggests that intestinal mucosa homeostasis impacts immunity, metabolism, the Central Nervous System (CNS), and behavior. Here, we investigated the effect of the monosaccharide fucose on inflammation, metabolism, intestinal microbiota, and social behavior in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-induced chronic colitis mouse model. Our data show that chronic colitis is accompanied by the decrease of the serum tryptophan level and the depletion of the intestinal microbiota, specifically tryptophan-producing E. coli and Bifidobacterium. These changes are associated with defects in the male mouse social behavior such as a lack of preference towards female bedding in an odor preference test. The addition of fucose to the test animals’ diet altered the bacterial community, increased the abundance of tryptophan-producing E. coli, normalized blood tryptophan levels, and ameliorated social behavior deficits. At the same time, we observed no ameliorating effect of fucose on colon morphology and colitis. Our results suggest a possible mechanism by which intestinal inflammation affects social behavior in male mice. We propose fucose as a promising prebiotic, since it creates a favorable environment for the beneficial bacteria that promote normalization of serum tryptophan level and amelioration of the behavioral abnormalities in the odor preference test.