In this paper we present new paleomagnetic and paleontological data from the Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks of Kotelny Island (the Anjou Archipelago), and from the Ordovician turbidities of Bennett Island (the De Long Archipelago). It is assumed that both archipelagos belong to the NSI (New Siberian Islands) terrane — a key tectonic element in the Arctic region. Ages of the studied rocks have been established by paleontological data and lithological correlations. Our new data on conodonts combined with those from previous studies of Ordovician and Silurian fauna indicate a biogeographic similarity between the shelves of the Siberian paleocontinent and the NSI in the Early Paleozoic. Three new paleomagnetic poles for the NSI (48.9°N, 13.8°E, A95 = 18.1° for 475 Ma; 45.5°N, 31.9°E, A95 = 11.0° for 465 Ma, and 33.7°N, 55.7°E, A95 = 11.0° for 435 Ma) fall between the south-eastern part of Central Europe and the Zagros Mountains. The similarity of paleomagnetic directions from Kotelny and Bennet islands confirms that both the Anjou and De Long archipelagos belong to the same terrane. Calculated paleolatitudes indicate that in Ordovician–Silurian times this terrane has been located between 30° and 45°, possibly in the northern hemisphere. Based on this observation, we suggest a linkage between the NSI and the Kolyma–Omolon superterrane. Comparison of apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) of the NSI, Siberia and other cratons/terranes suggests that the NSI drifted independently. We demonstrate that the structural line between Svyatoy Nos Peninsula and Great Lyakhovsky Island is the continuation of the Kolyma Loop suture on the Arctic shelf, and expect that the continuation of the South Anyui suture is to be found east of the NSI.