The morphological diversity and stratigraphic distribution of filamentous microfossils in the Vendian deposits of the Nepa Regional Stage of the interior of the Siberian Platform were analyzed. Hormogonian cyanobacteria of five genera (Nepia gen. nov., Talakania, Oscillatoriopsis, Obruchevella, and Siphonophycus) were identified in the composition of the Nepa biota. A monographic study was carried out, and a reproductive life cycle of the novel oscillatorian cyanobacterium Nepia calycina Golubkova, gen. et sp. nov. was reconstructed. The species Talakania obscura Kolosov, emend. was assigned to the polytrichomic cyanobacteria that are similar to the present-day genera Schizothrix and Microcoleus.