The work shows that single-phase hydroxyapatite doped with zinc or copper ions can be obtained using a solid-phase mechanochemical synthesis after 30 min of processing the reaction mixture in a planetary ball mill. To understand the mechanism of incorporating doping elements in the apatite structure, two substitution reactions have been investigated, namely replacement of the calcium and hydroxide ions with copper or zinc ions. The research has shown that, in the synthesized material, the dopant ions mainly take the sites of calcium ions. The degree of substitution can be up to 2 mol of substituent per mol of hydroxyapatite. The obtained samples can be used to produce medical bioresorbable items and coatings with antibacterial properties.