The adsorption of oligonucleotides on citrate-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) is studied under conditions "right after the synthesis", i.e., in a weak citrate solution at a pH value close to neutral (5.8 ± 0.2). We found that short-term elevation of reaction temperature under these conditions provides fast and strong adsorption of oligonucleotides on the surface of AuNPs. The affinity of oligonucleotides to AuNPs depends on the length of the oligonucleotide and its nucleotide composition. The shortest oligonucleotide in this study, T6, is the most affine, having the equilibrium binding constant KD = 0.10 ± 0.04 nM and the highest surface density - up to 200 molecules per one particle. Olygothymidylates are at least as affine to AuNPs as oligoadenylates, while oligocytidilates show the lowest affinity. We also studied the interaction of resulting DNA/AuNPs with a series of low- and high-molecular thiols, which provide a variety of operations with adsorbed oligonucleotides: displacement (complete or partial) and encapsulation in a secondary shell. These experiments imitate someway the conditions in a living cell or serum, and show that DNA/AuNPs obtained by this method can be applied in a number of bionanotechnological applications, including delivery of nucleic acid therapeutics and theranostics.