Background: Expression levels of cytokine and growth factor receptors have been found to be important in the regulation of their action. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) is actively involved in inflammation processes in atopic dermatitis (AD), but the role of TNFα membrane receptors (TNFR) and their regulatory function in AD remains unclear. Aim: We aimed to determine the associations of parameters of TNFRα expression on immunocompetent cells with disease severity before and after therapy in AD patients. Methods: TNFRα expression on T cells, B cells, and monocytes was evaluated by flow cytometry. To determine receptor numbers on the cells, Quantibrite PE beads were used. The content of soluble mediators was evaluated by ELISA. To reveal linear relationships between the index scoring AD (SCORAD) and the studied parameters, multiple linear regression model building was used. Results: TNFR1 and TNFR2 expression in lymphocyte and monocyte populations of AD patients was higher than in healthy individuals (HI). At the same time an increased percentage of positive cells was not associated with high receptor density, and vice versa. Serum content of TNFα, both soluble receptors, the number of TNFR2/T cells, and the percentage of TNFR2+ monocytes were found to be strongly associated with the SCORAD index. Conclusion: AD patients had increased TNFR expression on immune cells. Changes in the parameters of TNFRα expression compared to HI were associated with the disease severity index SCORAD.