The present review article summarizes the latest world scientific data on the role of receptors for immune mediators in regulating biological effects on the cells. For the main classes of immune regulators (interleukins, interferons, growth factors and tumor necrosis factors), the variants are presented for participation of receptors as components of cytokine/cell interaction, as proven by in vitro and in vivo studies. Ability of the receptors expression to modify characteristics and type of these interactions is shown. The data on participation of receptors for regulatory molecules in development of immune-mediated diseases of various genesis have been analyzed. It was demonstrated that the changes in the receptor expression are of great importance when evaluating functional response of the cells to the mediators and in development of pathological conditions. Current studies confirmed the data suggesting effects of receptor density upon the processes of proliferation and apoptosis, as well as metabolic processes that trigger development of autoimmune, oncological and dystrophic diseases. For all the considered classes of regulatory molecules, the change in the density of receptor expression is one of the key aspects in regulating functional activity of the cells. Thus, studying expression levels of receptors on the cell membrane is important in understanding pathogenesis, whereas changing expression level may be considered as a therapeutic target in the treatment of various diseases.