The expression of cytokine receptors has a crucial role in many cellular processes. Recent studies reported that changes of receptor expression could control the action of mediators on target cells. The initiation of different signaling pathways and, therefore, specific effects on cells, depends on certain components forming the cytokine-receptor complex. These mechanisms control the immune response and affect both the course of diseases (oncological, autoimmune, inflammatory) and the effectiveness of therapy. This review describes the potential of immune mediator receptors to regulate the efficiency of cytokine activity during pathologic processes and ensure the variability of their biological effects. Our aim was to investigate the spectrum of potential roles of changes in mediator receptor expression for main classes of pathologies. For all major types of immune mediators (cytokines, interleukins, chemokines, growth factors, and tumor necrosis factors), it has been shown that changes in their receptor expression are associated with impaired functioning of the organism in chronic diseases.