We studied radioprotective effects of a preparation based on yeast RNA and its influence on therapeutic efficiency of ionizing radiation against transplanted tumors. Parenteral administration of yeast RNA preparation to mice in a dose of 10 mg 1 h prior to exposure to ionizing γ-radiation (137Cs) in a lethal dose (LD80/30) increased 30-day survival by 66%; by day 80, 80% of animals survived (vs. 2.5% in the control). Whole-body exposure to ionizing γ-radiation in a dose of 7 Gy significantly increased the mean lifespan of mice with experimental lung metastases or intraperitoneally transplanted leukemia L-1210 by 42 and 20.8%, respectively. RNA preparation injected to the mice with tumors 1 h before irradiation did not affect the therapeutic efficiency of ionizing radiation or significantly potentiated it (in mice with transplanted leukemia L-1210). These results suggest that yeast RNA preparation protects healthy tissues during radiotherapy of malignant tumors.