Polyploid species represent a challenge for both cytogenetic and genomic studies due to their high chromosome numbers and the morphological similarity between their paralogous chromosomes. This paper describes the use of low-coverage high-throughput sequencing to identify the 14 most abundant tandemly arranged repetitive elements in the paleotetraploid genome of the crucian carp (Carassius carassius, 2n = 100). These repetitive elements were then used for molecular cytogenetic studies of a closely related functionally triploid form of the Prussian carp (Carassius gibelio, 3n = 150 + Bs) and a relatively distant diploid species, the tench (Tinca tinca, 2n = 48). According to their distribution on the chromosomes of the 3 aforementioned species, the repetitive elements here identified can be divided into 5 groups: (1) those specific to a single genomic locus in both Carassius species, despite the recent carp-specific genome duplication; (2) those located in a single genomic locus of T. tinca, but amplified in one or both Carassius species; (3) those massively amplified in the B chromosomes of C. gibelio; (4) those located in a single locus in C. gibelio, but amplified in many blocks in C. carassius; and (5) those located in multiple pericentromeric loci in both Carassius species. Our data indicate that some of the repetitive elements are highly conserved in cyprinoid species and may serve as good cytogenetic and genomic markers for discriminating paralogous chromosomes, while others are evolutionarily recent, and their amplification may be related to the last whole-genome duplication event.
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