The present study examined the contribution of effortful control to child well-being in early, preschool and school years (N = 302). Effortful control was measured by the behavioral multitask batteries developed by G. Kochanska and colleagues, and parental questionnaires developed by M. Rothbart and colleagues; child well-being was measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, Huebner’s Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale and schoolchildren’s academic achievement. The results showed that parent-reported effortful control was a predictor of prosocial behavior, externalizing, internalizing, and impact on the child’s life; observational measure of effortful control had a protective effect for externalizing problems. Among the components of effortful control, parent-reported inhibitory control and attention focusing, and observational measure of delaying capacity contributed to child well-being. For schoolchildren, parent-reported activation control predicted prosocial behavior and lower peer problems, and observational measure of suppressing/initiating activity predicted child life satisfaction. The findings indicate the importance of effortful control for Russian child well-being.