The strategic objective of energy security is associated with the necessity of continuous monitoring of geologic survey efficiency in resource-producing territories. Efficiency of replacement is defined by not only historical and geographical conditions of hydrocarbon resource base development, but also institutional, engineering, energy, and macro-economic conditions of subsurface users’ management that requires qualitatively new approaches towards evaluation of exploration activity efficiency. The aim of our research is to analyze the efficiency of replacement at the regional level by calculating the coefficient of static engineering efficiency based on Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) and dynamic efficiency based on Malmquist Productivity Index. To analyze replacement processes, the regions similar in quality characteristics of hydrocarbon resource base, role of oil-and-gas complex in gross regional product and industry have been chosen. Such RF oil-producing territories include Volga Republics (Tatarstan and Udmurt), Samara Oblast as well as Western-Siberian Tomsk Oblast and KhMAD-Yugra. In this case the latter differ from the former in transportation logistics and climate conditions of production. As a result of research four strongly marked periods were revealed: crisis, post-crisis, before-sanction, sanction, and aftersanction periods, which all the regions had passed differently that is supported by, firstly, the results of ranking in terms of obtained values of static efficiency into leaders, mediators, and outsiders; secondly, linear trends in dynamic efficiency. An increase in disbalance in subsurface resource management was stated in the territories, Tomsk Oblast having the lowest level of replacement processes. In all the territories the policy of oil production intensification is realized to the detriment of reserve replacement that leads to decrease in long-term production. The study was supported by the Russian Foundaton for Basic Research, Grant No. 18-010-00660A: Conceptual Approaches to the Paradigm of Sustainable and Well-Baanced Subsoil Management Considering Specific Mineral Reserves and Industrial Structure towards Long-Term Social and Economic Develioment in an Oil-Producing Region.