The results of numerical and experimental studies of the effective thermal conductivity of dispersed materials with contrast inclusions are presented. The numerical analysis was based on using the multiscale finite element method making it possible to calculate heat transport in media with ordered and chaotic location of the inclusions. The influence of the concentration of inclusions and the manner of their packing on the value of the effective coefficient of thermal conductivity was analyzed. The coefficient of thermal conductivity was studied experimentally for two media, gypsum and plexiglass with inclusions of steel balls (d = 3 mm) with different packing. The comparison of the results of measurements and numerical simulation makes it possible to verify the elaborated program complex and determine the boundaries of application of the available analytical dependences.