A series of micro-disperse Ni-Mo alloys with the sponge-like structure was prepared by a simultaneous precipitation method followed by sintering of the sediment in H2 atmosphere at 800 °C. According to XRD data, the formation of single-phase solid solution Ni1-xMox took place for the samples with Mo content of 0.6–8.3 wt.%. Synthesized samples were studied in a process of the catalytic CVD of C2H4Cl2 at 550–700 °C. In situ kinetic studies of carbon deposition process were carried out in a flow gravimetric setup equipped with McBain balances. An interaction of Ni-Mo alloys with C2H4Cl2 is accompanied by their rapid disintegration with formation of disperse active particles catalyzing the growth of carbon nanomaterials (CNM). The strong boosting effect of Mo on the catalytic performance of Ni was revealed. The maximum yield of CNM product (8.3 wt.% Mo, 600 °C, 120 min) was as high as 45 g/gM. The study on effect of the reaction temperature on the CNM yield allowed one to define an optimal temperature regime. The impact of Mo concentration upon the morphology, structural features and textural properties of the produced carbon fibers was investigated by means of SEM, TEM, Raman spectroscopy and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption. The role of chemisorbed chlorine species in a pulse-to-pulse regime of the segmented carbon filaments formation was discussed.