The main topic of this study was to investigate the effect of benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on microRNAs and their target genes expression levels in primary cell cultures from normal and malignant endometrial tissue. MicroRNA-126 (miR-126) and miR-190a were most sensitive to BP treatment. The treatment of both cultures with BP was accompanied by a decrease of miR-126 level and an increase of EGFL7 gene expression level. BP-induced upregulation of miR-190a was detected only in normal cells and it was accompanied with decrease of mRNA levels of TP53INP1 and PHLPP1 genes. Taking into account that BP promoted the proliferation of normal cells and amplified apoptosis of cancer cells, it is possible that miR-190a is involved in general cellular response to BP. The findings of this study indicate that miR-190a and its target genes may be involved in the regulation of cell fate under BP treatment.