The main aims of this paper are to reveal general patterns of Orthoptera distribution in the Eurasian steppes, to evaluate long-term trends of changes in distribution of taxa and populations, and to estimate the potential for population changes relative to human activity and global warming trends. The main publications concerning diversity and distribution of these insects over the steppes are analyzed. The fauna of the Eurasian steppes includes more than 440 species of Orthoptera. The general distribution of grasshoppers and their kin in the Eurasian steppes reflects their common associations with different grasslands. The species richness increases from the relatively cold forest-steppes to the semi-deserts with their warm summer. There are some endemic or subendemic taxa, including the tribe Onconotini (Tettigoniidae). The populations’ distribution of Orthoptera is also analyzed. The populations of native Orthoptera extend through all the herbaceous landscapes. Under these conditions, the interrelating of colonies of each species may result in great abundance. The population distribution of three species locusts (Locusta migratoria, Calliptamus italicus, Dociostau-rus maroccanus) is also discussed. Some notable changes of their populations’ distribution and dynamics are characterized. The situation with rare Orthoptera is estimated. Retrospective and prospective of the steppe fauna of Orthoptera are discussed.