Varicose veins of the lower extremities (VVs) are a common pathology of blood vessels. Molecular mechanisms underlying its development are still not fully understood. One of the approaches to the study of pathogenesis of the diseases is to compare gene expression in normal and pathological conditions, e.g. in normal and varicose veins. In this article, we collected and analyzed the literature data on the differential gene expression in VVs, discussed the methods and approaches used for its investigation, and highlighted problems in this field of research. Three types of studies were analyzed: candidate-gene studies (23 studies), differential displays of mRNA (3), and microarray-based studies (3). We also performed a functional annotation of the genes identified with the microarray technology by means of the Gene Set Enrichment Analysis. This analysis was conducted using the tools of the PANTHER system and the geneXplain platform. The enrichment was calculated for the gene ontologies «biological process», «molecular function», and for Reactome pathways. Many categories that showed statistically significant overrepresentation were related to the organization of cellular and extracellular structures - the cytoskeleton, the extracellular matrix, the interaction of matrix components with cells and between each other, as well as to the response to various organic molecules, including cytokines, and to the hemostatic system.