Profiles of alternative mRNA isoforms have been determined in three brain regions of rats from an aggressive and a tame line selected for 74 generations. Among 2319 genes with alternatively spliced exons, approximately 84% were confirmed by analyzing public databases. Based on Gene Ontology-guided clustering of alternatively spliced genes, it has been found that the sample was enriched in synapse-specific genes (FDR < 10–17). Patterns of gene expression in the brains of animals with genetically determined high or low aggression were more frequently found to differ in the use of alternatively spliced exons than in animals environmentally conditioned for increased or lowered propensity to aggression. For the Adcyap1r1 gene, five alternatively spliced mRNA isoforms have been represented differentially in aggressive animals. A detailed analysis of the gene that encodes glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1 (Grin1) has confirmed significant differences in the levels of its alternatively spliced isoforms in certain brain regions of tame and aggressive rats. These differences may affect the behavior in rats genetically selected for aggression levels.