Hereditary hearing loss (HL) is known to be highly locus/allelic heterogeneous, and the prevalence of different HL forms significantly varies among populations worldwide. Investigation of region-specific landscapes of hereditary HL is important for local healthcare and medical genetic services. Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene leading to nonsyndromic recessive deafness (DFNB4) and Pendred syndrome are common genetic causes of hereditary HL, at least in some Asian populations. We present for the first time the results of a thorough analysis of the SLC26A4 gene by Sanger sequencing in the large cohorts of patients with HL of unknown etiology belonging to two neighboring indigenous Turkic-speaking Siberian peoples (Tuvinians and Altaians). A definite genetic diagnosis based on the presence of biallelic SLC26A4 mutations was established for 28.2% (62/220) of all enrolled Tuvinian patients vs. 4.3% (4/93) of Altaian patients. The rate of the SLC26A4-related HL in Tuvinian patients appeared to be one of the highest among populations worldwide. The SLC26A4 mutational spectrum was characterized by the presence of Asian-specific mutations c.919-2A>G and c.2027T>A (p.Leu676Gln), predominantly found in Tuvinian patients, and c.2168A>G (p.His723Arg), which was only detected in Altaian patients. In addition, a novel pathogenic variant c.1545T>G (p.Phe515Leu) was found with high frequency in Tuvinian patients. Overall, based on the findings of this study and our previous research, we were able to uncover the genetic causes of HL in 50.5% of Tuvinian patients and 34.5% of Altaian patients.
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- 3.02 КЛИНИЧЕСКАЯ МЕДИЦИНА