A xenolith of bimineralic eclogite from the Udachnaya kimberlite pipe provides a snapshot of interaction between mantle rocks and diamond-forming fluids/melts. The major-element composition of the eclogite is similar to that of N-MORB and/or oceanic gabbros, but its trace-element pattern shows the effects of mantle metasomatism, which resulted in diamond formation. The diamonds are clustered in alteration veins that crosscut primary garnet and clinopyroxene. The diamonds contain microinclusions of a fluid/melt dominated by carbonate and KCl. Compared to the worldwide dataset, the microinclusions in these diamonds fall in middle of the range between saline fluids and low-Mg carbonatitic melts. The fluid/melt acted as a metasomatic agent that percolated through ancient eclogitic rocks stored in the mantle. This interaction is consistent with calculated partition coefficients between the rock-forming minerals and diamond-forming fluid/melt, which are similar to experimentally-determined values. Some differences between the calculated and experimental values may be due to the low contents of water and silicates in the chloride-carbonate melt observed in this study, and in particular its high contents of K and LILE. The lack of nitrogen aggregation in the diamonds implies that the diamond-forming metasomatism took place shortly before the eruption of the kimberlite, and that the microinclusions thus represent saline carbonate-rich fluids circulating in the basement of lithospheric mantle (150–170 km depth).