Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1 (TDP1) is a DNA repair enzyme that plays a key role in repairing damage caused by various antitumor drugs. It is a promising target in medicinal chemistry for the creation of cancer adjuvant therapy. Inhibition of this enzyme together with the use of anticancer chemotherapy enhances the effect of the latter. The natural mutant of TDP1, TDP1(H493R), causes severe neurodegenerative disease spinocerebellar ataxia syndrome with axonal neuropathy (SCAN1). Inhibition of TDP1(H493R) appears to be useful in containment the progression of the disease. A library of compounds was synthesized starting from dehydroabietylamine including heterocyclic pharmacophore groups in the core. To obtain the desired products, the starting dehydroabietylamine was introduced sequentially in reaction with isothiocyanate and ethyl bromoacetate. Different classes of heterocyclic derivatives—2-iminothiazolidin-4-ons and 2-thioxoimidazolidin-4-ones—were obtained depending on the addition order of reagents. 2-Iminothiazolidin-4-thiones were obtained from 2-iminothiazolidin-4-ones under the action of the Lawesson’s reagent. Effective TDP1 inhibitors were found among the obtained compounds that work in submicromolar concentrations. The inhibitor of TDP1(H493R) was also detected. Graphic abstract: [Figure not available: see fulltext.].