Study of the mechanism of carbonation and wehrlitization of harzburgite upon metasomatism by carbonatitic melts of various genesis was carried out. Experiments with durations of 60–150 h were performed at 6.3 GPa and 1200°C. The data showed that carbonatite with MgO/CaO > 0.3 percolating into the peridotitic lithosphere may provide crystallization of magnesite in it. The influence of all studied carbonatites results in wehrlitization of peridotite. The compositions of melts formed by interaction with harzburgite (∼2 wt % SiO2, Ca# = 36–47) practically do not depend on the composition of the initial carbonatite. Based on the data obtained, we conclude that the formation of magnesite-bearing and magnesite-free metasomatized peridotites may have a significant influence on the CO2 regime in the further generation of kimberlitic magmas of groups I and II.