Oxyluciferin, which is the light emitter for firefly bioluminescence, has been subjected to extensive chemical modifications to tune its emission wavelength and quantum yield. However, the exact mechanisms for various electron-donating and withdrawing groups to perturb the photophysical properties of oxyluciferin analogs are still not fully understood. To elucidate the substituent effects on the fluorescence wavelength of oxyluciferin analogs, we applied the absolutely localized molecular orbitals (ALMO)-based frontier orbital analysis to assess various types of interactions (i.e. permanent electrostatics/exchange repulsion, polarization, occupied–occupied orbital mixing, virtual–virtual orbital mixing, and charge-transfer) between the oxyluciferin and substituent orbitals. We suggested two distinct mechanisms that can lead to red-shifted oxyluciferin emission wavelength, a design objective that can help increase the tissue penetration of bioluminescence emission. Within the first mechanism, an electron-donating group (such as an amino or dimethylamino group) can contribute its highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) to an out-of-phase combination with oxyluciferin's HOMO, thus raising the HOMO energy of the substituted analog and narrowing its HOMO-LUMO gap. Alternatively, an electron-withdrawing group (such as a nitro or cyano group) can participate in an in-phase virtual–virtual orbital mixing of fragment LUMOs, thus lowering the LUMO energy of the substituted analog. Such an ALMO-based frontier orbital analysis is expected to lead to intuitive principles for designing analogs of not only the oxyluciferin molecule, but also many other functional dyes.
|Журнал||Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology A: Chemistry|
|Состояние||Опубликовано - 1 окт 2022|
Предметные области OECD FOS+WOS
- 2.04 ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ ТЕХНОЛОГИИ
- 1.03 ФИЗИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ И АСТРОНОМИЯ
- 1.04 ХИМИЧЕСКИЕ НАУКИ