Bovidae, the largest family in Pecora infraorder, are characterized by a striking variability in diploid number of chromosomes between species and among individuals within a species. The bovid X chromosome is also remarkably variable, with several morphological types in the family. Here we built a detailed chromosome map of musk ox (Ovibos moschatus), a relic species originating from Pleistocene megafauna, with dromedary and human probes using chromosome painting. We trace chromosomal rearrangements during Bovidae evolution by comparing species already studied by chromosome painting. The musk ox karyotype differs from the ancestral pecoran karyotype by six fusions, one fission, and three inversions. We discuss changes in pecoran ancestral karyotype in the light of new painting data. Variations in the X chromosome structure of four bovid species nilgai bull (Boselaphus tragocamelus), saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), gaur (Bos gaurus), and Kirk’s Dikdik (Madoqua kirkii) were further analyzed using 26 cattle BAC-clones. We found the duplication on the X in saola. We show main rearrangements leading to the formation of four types of bovid X: Bovinae type with derived cattle subtype formed by centromere reposition and Antilopinae type with Caprini subtype formed by inversion in XSB3.