Exposure to chronic ionizing radiation (CIR) from nuclear power plant accidents, acts of terrorism, and space exploration poses serious threats to humans. Fungi are a group of highly radiation-resistant eukaryotes, and an understanding of fungal CIR resistance mechanisms holds the prospect of protecting humans. We compared the abilities of 95 wild-type yeast and dimorphic fungal isolates, representing diverse Ascomycota and Basidiomycota, to resist exposure to five environmentally-relevant stressors: CIR (long-duration growth under 36 Gy/h) and acute (10 kGy/h) ionizing radiation (IR), heavy metals (chromium, mercury), elevated temperature (up to 50 °C), and low pH (2.3). To quantify associations between resistances to CIR and these other stressors, we used correlation analysis, logistic regression with multi-model inference, and customized machine learning. The results suggest that resistance to acute IR in fungi is not strongly correlated with the ability of a given fungal isolate to grow under CIR. Instead, the strongest predictors of CIR resistance in fungi were resistance to chromium (III) and to elevated temperature. These results suggest fundamental differences between the mechanisms of resistance to chronic and acute radiation. Convergent evolution towards radioresistance among genetically distinct groups of organisms is considered here.