Polyploid genomes present a challenge for cytogenetic and genomic studies, due to the high number of similar size chromosomes and the simultaneous presence of hardly distinguishable paralogous elements. The karyotype of the Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii) contains around 250 chromosomes and is remarkable for the presence of paralogs from two rounds of whole-genome duplications (WGD). In this study, we applied the sterlet-derived acipenserid satDNA-based whole chromosome-specific probes to analyze the Siberian sturgeon karyotype. We demonstrate that the last genome duplication event in the Siberian sturgeon was accompanied by the simultaneous expansion of several repetitive DNA families. Some of the repetitive probes serve as good cytogenetic markers distinguishing paralogous chromosomes and detecting ancestral syntenic regions, which underwent fusions and fissions. The tendency of minisatellite specificity for chromosome size groups previously observed in the sterlet genome is also visible in the Siberian sturgeon. We provide an initial physical chromosome map of the Siberian sturgeon genome supported by molecular markers. The application of these data will facilitate genomic studies in other recent polyploid sturgeon species.