Nowadays we approached the turn, when the molecular genetics and the cell biology with its extensive baggage of methods and data, allow us to work with information about nucleotide sequences of whole genomes, to edit the nucleotide sequence of the genomes of laboratory animals and cultured human cells and also explore functions and interactions of genetic elements in health and in disease. The use of these instruments opens up huge possibilities for the study of severe human genetic abnormalities. In various laboratories around world an extensive work is carried out in this area by searching links between genetic elements and diseases, using the latest technology of genome editing and reprogramming somatic mature cells to a pluripotent stem condition. The most progressively developing area of research is the study of neurodegenerative diseases. In this review we discussed about possibilities and problems of using new techniques and instruments of cell biology, genetics and genomics in studying molecular and genetic basis of the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease.