Objectives: To evaluate the dynamics of the cerebral oxygen supply in patients aged ≥65 years, during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), and to test the hypothesis that lower intraoperative brain oxygen saturation is associated with postoperative neurological complications. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The E. Meshalkin National Medical Research Center of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, Novosibirsk, Russia. Participants: The study comprised 200 elderly patients who underwent CABG between April, 2018 and November, 2019. Interventions: None. Measurements and Main Results: The regional hemoglobin oxygen saturation (rSO2, %) of the right and left brain hemispheres were assessed during the intraoperative period using bilateral near-infrared spectroscopy. Furthermore, neurological complications during hospitalization were evaluated. At the anesthesia induction stage, the average levels of rSO2 for the right and left hemispheres were within 65% and did not differ significantly at any stage of CABG (p>0.05). The risk of neurological complications was associated with rSO2 decrease during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). An increased risk was associated with rSO2 decrease by 20% or more during CPB, relative to the stage of anesthesia induction, which was observed in 19% of patients. Conclusions: In elderly patients, the decrease in rSO2 during CPB is associated with an increased risk of neurological complications during hospitalization. This risk increases with a decrease in rSO2 by 20% or more during CPB relative to the stage of anesthesia induction, by a 5-fold and 7-fold for the left and right hemispheres, respectively.