The development of new accelerators has given a new impetus to the development of new drugs and treatment technologies using boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We analyzed the current status and future directions of BNCT for cancer treatment, as well as the main issues related to its introduction. This review highlights the principles of BNCT and the key milestones in its development: new boron delivery drugs and different types of charged particle accelerators are described; several important aspects of BNCT implementation are discussed. BCNT could be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and it is evaluated in light of the outlined issues. For the speedy implementation of BCNT in medical practice, it is necessary to develop more selective boron delivery agents and to generate an epithermal neutron beam with definite characteristics. Pharmacological companies and research laboratories should have access to accelerators for large-scale screening of new, more specific boron delivery agents.