The Badzhal tin magmatic-fluid system of the eponymous volcanoplutonic zone in the Middle Amur Region has been studied to reveal special characteristics of the transition from granite crystallization to rare-metal deposition. Therefore, the authors have conducted an in-depth study of melt, fluid-melt, and fluid inclusions and oxygen isotope composition of minerals from granitic rocks of the Verkhneurmiisky pluton within the Badzhal volcanoplutonic zone and minerals of the Pravourmiisky and Blizhnee Sn-W deposits. Greisen alteration and hydrothermal veins at the Pravourmiisky and Blizhnee deposits resulted from a single magmatic-fluid system related to the Verkhneurmiisky granite pluton, which is one of domes of the Badzhal batholith. The transition has been traced from magmatic crystallization of granite to hydrothermal ore formation and evolution of magmatic fluid from its separation to Sn and W deposition. Mixed fluid-melt inclusions directly support tin-bearing fluid separation during melt crystallization. The glass compositions indicate that granite and porphyry granite crystallized from felsic metaluminous to peraluminous melts with an ASI index and alkali content ranging from 0.95 to 1.33 and from 6.02 to 9.02 wt %, respectively. The Cl and F concentrations in glasses are 0.03–0.14 and 0.14–0.44 wt %, respectively, and are higher than those in the bulk rock compositions, 0.02 and 0.05–0.13 wt %, respectively. These differences indicate that Cl and F could have been removed from a granitic melt during its crystallization and degassing. The H2O concentration estimated based on the electron deficiency of summed microprobe analyses is 8–11 wt %. This was estimated taking into account the possible effect of “sodium loss” (Nielsen and Sigurdson, 1981) when analyzing hydrated glasses. Taking into account the high uncertainty of such estimation (Devine et al., 1995), this value is extremely uncertain and the studied melts should be considered as containing 9.5–10.0 wt % H2O. The melt inclusion study shows that some of the magmatic rocks of the Badzhal ore-magmatic system formed at approximately 650°C. The melt from which these rocks crystallized was felsic, moderate in fluorine, and meta- and peraluminous. Low-temperature crystallization is probably caused by high water pressure and elevated fluorine content. These inclusions most likely characterize the final stage of the pluton, at which crystals, residual melt, and magmatic fluid phase coexist. Fluid responsible for the formation of greisens at the Pravourmiisky deposit has features very close to those of supercritical fluid trapped by magmatic minerals. Its salinity, ranging from ∼9 to 12 wt % NaCl equiv., and maximal temperature of 550°C (taking into account pressure correction for ∼1 kbar) are close to those of magmatic fluid. This makes it possible to relate the origin of the fluid to cooling of the pluton. Greisen and quartz-cassiterite-topaz veins of the Pravourmiisky deposit formed from magmatic fluid at a decreased temperature from 550–450 to 480–380°C. The fluid responsible for the formation of quartz-cassiterite veins at the Blizhnee deposit also separated from magma as indicated by the oxygen isotope composition (δ18OH2O~8.5‰), which evolved in a shallower environment under much lower pressure. This resulted in fluid with a salinity of ∼13 wt % NaCl equiv. at 420–340°C being separated into a low-density low-saline vapor and brine with a salinity of 33.5–37.4 wt % NaCl equiv. The oxygen isotope composition of the mineralizing fluid was governed by equilibrium with granite within a wide temperature range (from ∼700°C to the onset of greisen crystallization). The agreement between the measured data and those calculated based on the suggested model indicates that a significant volume of external fluid having different isotopic features and not in equilibrium with the Verkhneurmiisky granite did not enter the magmatic-fluid system. The revealed differences in the physicochemical formation conditions of the two studied deposits are not critical and support their formation within a single magmatic-fluid system.
|Журнал||Geology of Ore Deposits|
|Состояние||Опубликовано - 1 мая 2019|
|Опубликовано для внешнего пользования||Да|