We have assessed the diversity of bacteria near oil-methane (area I) and methane (area II) seeps in the pelagic zone of Lake Baikal using massive parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA, pmoA, and mxaF gene fragments amplified from total DNA. At depths from the surface to 100 m, sequences belonging to Cyanobacteria dominated. In the communities to a depth of 200 m of the studied areas, Proteobacteria dominated the deeper layers of the water column. Alphaproteobacteria sequences were predominant in the community near the oil-methane seep, while the community near the methane seep was characterized by the prevalence of Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria. Among representatives of these classes, type I methanotrophs prevailed in the 16S rRNA gene libraries from the near–bottom area, and type II methanotrophs were detected in minor quantities at different depths. In the analysis of the libraries of the pmoA and mxaF functional genes, we observed the different taxonomic composition of methanotrophic bacteria in the surface and deep layers of the water column. All pmoA sequences from area I were type II methanotrophs and were detected at a depth of 300 m, while sequences of type I methanotrophs were the most abundant in deep layers of the water column of area II. All mxaF gene sequences belonged to Methylobacterium representatives. Based on comparative analyses of 16S rRNA, pmoA, and mxaF gene fragment libraries, we suggest that there must be a wider spectrum of functional genes facilitating methane oxidation that were not detected with the primers used.