This study is an assessment of the degree of skin hypopigmentation in patients with vitiligo. Material and Methods: The study followed 47 patients with vitiligo (33 female and 14 male patients; the average age was 38.0 ± 18.0 years). The mean disease duration was 15.5 ± 14.1 years. We determined the melanin levels in the patches of vitiligo and on the healthy skin of the face, trunk, and extremities by using mexametry. Results: High melanin levels were found in patches on and around the mouth. Melanin levels did not differ in vitiligo patches and on healthy skin of chins and buttocks. All patients had no melanin in the patches on their cheeks. Having vitiligo for a long time reduces melanin levels in the skin of the forehead. High melanin levels in healthy skin are associated with stored melanin in vitiligo patches in axillary areas, on the back, brachiums, and femurs. Conclusions: There are significant differences in the melanin levels in the vitiligo patches and healthy skin, which have specific features depending on the localization. Analysis of melanin levels may be useful in choosing a method and evaluating the effectiveness of the planned therapy.