The anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, aμ, is a unique quantity that allows high-precision tests of the Standard Model. Currently, a difference of 3 to 4 standard deviations is observed between the prediction of the Standard Model and the most precise measurement performed. We present a review of the Standard Model calculations of aμ. The principles and history of aμ experiments are presented, and the recent measurement at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA, is described in detail. Prospects for further improving the accuracy of both calculations and measurements of aμ are discussed.