Background: The food-borne liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus is an epidemiologically important species and the causative agent of opisthorchiasis across an extensive territory of Eurasia. For decades, treatment of opisthorchiasis has been based on praziquantel. Tribendimidine could be an alternative drug that has been successfully tested for Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis infections. We aimed to assess tribendimidine effects in comparison with praziquantel in vivo and in vitro against the liver fluke Opisthorchis felineus. Results: In this study we (i) calculated half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) by motility tests against O. felineus adults and newly excysted metacercarie after tribendimidine treatment in vitro; (ii) determined whether tribendimidine and PZQ effects on adult liver flukes are dependent on or mediated by white blood cells; and (iii) tested in vivo the anthelmintic activity of tribendimidine on juvenile and adult worms. We found that the efficiency of tribendimidine in vitro was similar (IC50 = 0.23 μM for newly excysted metacercariae and 0.19 μM for adult worms) to that of praziquantel (IC50 0.98 μM for newly excysted metacercariae and 0.47 μM for adult worms). The treatment of adult worms in vivo with praziquantel or tribendimidine at 400 mg/kg resulted in a 76% and 77.2% reduction, respectively, in the worm burden during chronic infection. Conclusions: The differences between WBR values after PZQ and TBN treatment were not significant, thus tribendimidine was as effective as praziquantel against O. felineus liver flukes. Given the broad-spectrum activity of tribendimidine and efficacy against O. felineus, this drug may be a promising candidate for the treatment of opisthorchiasis felinea and other liver fluke infections.