A novel thermophilic bacteriophage AP45 and its host strain Aeribacillus sp. CEMTC656 were isolated from the Valley of Geysers, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia. Bacteriophage AP45 was identified as a member of the Siphoviridae family by electron microscopy. It showed high thermostability and had a slow cycle of reproduction. The AP45 genome had 51,606 base pairs (bp) and contained 71 open reading frames (ORFs), 40 of them encoding proteins of predicted function. Genes encoding DNA and RNA polymerases were not identified, indicating that AP45 used host polymerases. Based on the ORF65 encoding putative endolysin, the recombinant protein rAP45Lys was developed and its peptidoglycan-hydrolyzing activity was demonstrated. The AP45 genome exhibited limited identity to other phage sequences; the highest identity, 36%, was with the genome of the thermophilic Geobacillus myovirus D6E. The majority of putative proteins encoded by the AP45 genome had higher similarity to proteins from bacteria belonging to the Bacillaceae family, than to bacteriophages. In addition, more than half of the putative ORFs in the AP45 genome were highly similar to prophage sequences of A. pallidus strain 8m3, which was isolated in north–east China. The AP45 phage and revealed prophages might be members of a new genus belonging to the Siphoviridae family.