Z2 topological order and topological protection of majorana fermion qubits

Rukhsan Ul Haq, Louis H. Kauffman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

The Kitaev chain model exhibits topological order that manifests as topological degeneracy, Majorana edge modes and Z2 topological invariant of the bulk spectrum. This model can be obtained from a transverse field Ising model(TFIM) using the Jordan–Wigner transformation. TFIM has neither topological degeneracy nor any edge modes. Topological degeneracy associated with topological order is central to topological quantum computation. In this paper, we explore topological protection of the ground state manifold in the case of Majorana fermion models which exhibit Z2 topological order. We show that there are at least two different ways to understand this topological protection of Majorana fermion qubits: one way is based on fermionic mode operators and the other is based on anti-commuting symmetry operators. We also show how these two different ways are related to each other. We provide a very general approach to understanding the topological protection of Majorana fermion qubits in the case of lattice Hamiltonians. We then show how in topological phases in Majorana fermion models gives rise to new braid group representations. So, we give a unifying and broad perspective of topological phases in Majorana fermion models based on anti-commuting symmetry operators and braid group representations of Majorana fermions as anyons.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalCondensed Matter
Volume6
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2021

Keywords

  • Emergent Majorana Modes
  • Majorana fermion braiding
  • Majorana fermion models
  • Topological Protection

OECD FOS+WOS

  • 2.05 MATERIALS ENGINEERING
  • 1.03.UK PHYSICS, CONDENSED MATTER

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