The Challenges of Vaccine Development against Betacoronaviruses: Antibody Dependent Enhancement and Sendai Virus as a Possible Vaccine Vector

T. A. Zaichuk, Y. D. Nechipurenko, A. A. Adzhubey, S. B. Onikienko, V. A. Chereshnev, S. S. Zainutdinov, G. V. Kochneva, S. V. Netesov, O. V. Matveeva

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

To design an effective and safe vaccine against betacoronaviruses, it is necessary to use their evolutionarily conservative antigenic determinants that will elicit the combination of strong humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. Targeting such determinants minimizes the risk of antibody-dependent enhancement of viral infection. This phenomenon was observed in animal trials of experimental vaccines against SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV that were developed based on inactivated coronavirus or vector constructs expressing the spike protein (S) of the virion. The substitution and glycosylation of certain amino acids in the antigenic determinants of the S-protein, as well as its conformational changes, can lead to the same effect in a new experimental vaccine against SARS-CoV-2. Using more conservative structural and accessory viral proteins for the vaccine antigenic determinants will help to avoid this problem. This review outlines approaches for developing vaccines against the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus that are based on non-pathogenic viral vectors. For efficient prevention of infections caused by respiratory pathogens the ability of the vaccine to stimulate mucosal immunity in the respiratory tract is important. Such a vaccine can be developed using non-pathogenic Sendai virus vector, since it can be administered intranasally and induce a mucosal immune response that strengthens the antiviral barrier in the respiratory tract and provides reliable protection against infection.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)812-826
Number of pages15
JournalMolecular Biology
Volume54
Issue number6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2020

Keywords

  • ADE
  • antibody-dependent enhancement
  • conservative antigenic determinants
  • COVID-19
  • murine respirovirus
  • SARS-CoV-1
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Sendai virus
  • vaccine vector
  • NEUTRALIZING ANTIBODIES
  • T-CELL
  • VIRAL VECTORS
  • RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS
  • RESPONSES
  • IMMUNOGENICITY
  • SPIKE PROTEIN
  • INFECTION
  • TYPE-1
  • SARS-CORONAVIRUS

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