Steroid sapogenin diosgenin is of significant interest due to its biological activity and synthetic application. A consecutive one-pot reaction of diosgenin, oxalyl chloride, arylacetylenes, and phenylhydrazine give rise to steroidal 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazoles (isolated yield 46–60%) when the Stephens–Castro reaction and heterocyclization steps were carried out by heating in benzene. When the cyclization step of alkyndione with phenylhydrazine was performed in 2-methoxyethanol at room temperature, steroidal α,β-alkynyl (E)-and (Z)-hydrazones were isolated along with 1,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazole and the isomeric 2,3,5-trisubstituted pyrazole. The consecutive reaction of diosgenin, oxalyl chloride, phenylacetylene and benzoic acid hydrazides efficiently forms steroidal 1-benzoyl-5-hydroxy-3-phenylpyrazolines. The structure of new compounds was unambiguously corroborated by comprehensive NMR spectroscopy, mass-spectrometry, and X-ray structure analyses. Performing the heterocyclization step of ynedione with hydrazine monohydrate in 2-methoxyethanol allowed the synthesis of 5-phenyl substituted steroidal pyrazole, which was found to exhibit high anti-inflammatory activity, comparable to that of diclofenac sodium, a commercial pain reliever. It was shown by molecular docking that the new derivatives are incorporated into the binding site of the protein Keap1 Kelch-domain by their alkynylhydrazone or pyrazole substituent with the formation of more non-covalent bonds and have higher affinity than the initial spirostene core.
- Anti-inflammatory activity
- Multi-component synthesis
- Stephens–Castro reaction
- 1.06.CQ BIOCHEMISTRY & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
- 1.04 CHEMICAL SCIENCES