Polarizing insensitive nuclei at ultralow magnetic fields using parahydrogen: A facile route to optimize adiabatic magnetic field sweeps

Vitaly P. Kozienko, Alexey S. Kiryutin, Alexandra V. Yurkovskaya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Parahydrogen induced polarization (PHIP) provides a powerful tool to enhance inherently weak nuclear magnetic resonance signals, particularly in biologically relevant compounds. The initial source of PHIP is the non-equilibrium spin order of parahydrogen, i.e., dihydrogen, where the two protons make up a singlet spin state. Conversion of this spin order into net magnetization of magnetic heteronuclei, e.g., 13C, provides one of the most efficient ways to exploit PHIP. We propose a facile route to increase the performance of PHIP transfer in experiments with adiabatic sweeps of the ultralow magnetic field. To date, this technique yields the highest efficiency of PHIP transfer, yet, it has been mostly utilized with linear field sweeps, which does not consider the underlying spin dynamics, resulting in sub-optimal polarization. This issue was previously addressed by using the "constant"adiabaticity method, which, however, requires extensive calculations for large spin systems. In this work, the field sweep is optimized by utilizing the field dependence of the average 13C polarization. Both the experimental detection and the numerical simulation of this dependence are straightforward, even for complex multi-spin systems. This work provides a comprehensive survey of PHIP transfer dynamics at ultralow fields for two molecular systems that are relevant for PHIP, namely, maleic acid and allyl pyruvate. The proposed optimization allowed us to increase the resulting 13C polarization in 13C-allyl pyruvate from 6.8% with a linear profile to 8.7% with an "optimal"profile. Such facile optimization routines are valuable for adiabatic experiments in complex spin systems undergoing rapid relaxation or chemical exchange.

Original languageEnglish
Article number174201
JournalJournal of Chemical Physics
Issue number17
Publication statusPublished - 7 Nov 2022



Cite this