Picture-valued parity-biquandle bracket

Denis P. Ilyutko, Vassily O. Manturov

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


In V. O. Manturov, On free knots, preprint (2009), arXiv:math.GT/0901.2214], the second named author constructed the bracket invariant [[•]] of virtual knots valued in pictures (linear combinations of virtual knot diagrams with some crossing information omitted), such that for many diagrams K, the following formula holds: [K] = K, where K is the underlying graph of the diagram, i.e. the value of the invariant on a diagram equals the diagram itself with some crossing information omitted. This phenomenon allows one to reduce many questions about virtual knots to questions about their diagrams. In [S. Nelson, M. E. Orrison and V. Rivera, Quantum enhancements and biquandle brackets, preprint (2015), arXiv:math.GT/1508.06573], the authors discovered the following phenomenon: having a biquandle coloring of a certain knot, one can enhance various state-sum invariants (say, Kauffman bracket) by using various coefficients depending on colors. Taking into account that the parity can be treated in terms of biquandles, we bring together the two ideas from these papers and construct the picture-valued parity-biquandle bracket for classical and virtual knots. This is an invariant of virtual knots valued in pictures. Both the parity bracket and Nelson-Orrison-Rivera invariants are partial cases of this invariant, hence this invariant enjoys many properties of various kinds. Recently, the authors together with E. Horvat and S. Kim have found that the picture-valued phenomenon works in the classical case.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2040004
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Knot Theory and its Ramifications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2020


  • bracket
  • coloring
  • diagram
  • invariant
  • Knot
  • parity
  • picture biquandle
  • Reidemeister moves


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