The Siberian wood frog Rana amurensis is a recently discovered example of extreme hypoxia tolerance that is able to survive several months without oxygen. We studied metabolomic profiles of heart and liver of R. amurensis exposed to 17 days of extreme hypoxia. Without oxygen, the studied tissues experience considerable stress with a drastic decrease of ATP, phosphocreatine, and NAD+ concentrations, and concomitant increase of AMP, creatine, and NADH. Heart and liver switch to different pathways of glycolysis with differential accumulation of lactate, alanine, succinate, as well as 2,3-butanediol (previously not reported for vertebrates as an end product of glycolysis) and depletion of aspartate. We also observed statistically significant changes in concentrations of certain osmolytes and choline-related compounds. Low succinate/fumarate ratio and high glutathione levels indicate adaptations to reoxygenation stress. Our data suggest that maintenance of the ATP/ADP pool is not required for survival of R. amurensis, in contrast to anoxia-tolerant turtles.
- ANOXIA TOLERANCE
- REPERFUSION INJURY