Long-wavelength photoremovable protecting groups: On the way to in vivo application

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10 Citations (Scopus)


Photoremovable protective groups (PPGs) and related “caged” compounds have been recognized as a powerful tool in an arsenal of life science methods. The present review is focused on recent advances in design of “caged” compounds which function in red or near-infrared region. The naive comparison of photon energy with that of organic bond leads to the illusion that long-wavelength activation is possible only for weak chemical bonds like N-N. However, there are different means to overcome this threshold and shift the uncaging functionality into red or near-infrared regions for general organic bonds. We overview these strategies, including the novel photochemical and photophysical mechanisms used in newly developed PPGs, singlet-oxygen-mediated photolysis, and two-photon absorption. Recent advances in science places the infrared-sensitive PPGs to the same usability level as traditional ones, facilitating in vivo application of caged compounds.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)27-34
Number of pages8
JournalComputational and Structural Biotechnology Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • caged compounds
  • long-wavelength excitation
  • photoremovable protecting groups

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